Ocular cancers are a group of rare, life-threatening conditions that affect one or both eyes. The main indications include choroidal melanoma, choroidal metastases, cancers of the ocular surface and retinoblastoma, among others. Diagnosing and treating these cancers early is important because they have the potential to spread both within the eye and to other organs. The risk for ocular cancer increases with age, increasing significantly after the age of 50. For cancers that occur inside the eye (e.g., choroidal melanoma), the typical treatment is radiotherapy in the form of plaque brachytherapy and proton beam therapy, but these treatments are highly invasive and result in major vision loss and other comorbidities for many patients.